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  • Перевод с английского языка на основе функционального подхода к грамматике (3)
  • Перевод с английского языка на основе функционального подхода к грамматике (2)
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    Газета School English #10, 2005

    Сочинение-рассуждение


    рубрику ведёт Наталья Кузнецова


        Здравствуйте!

        Прежде всего, начнём с проверки «домашнего задания», которое заключалось в письменном высказывании на тему:

    The Internet is a new way to communicate. Some people think it has more drawbacks than advantages.
    What can you say for and against communicating by using the Internet?


        Предлагаем вам познакомиться с одной из версий сочинения-рассуждения на данную тему, в которой выдержаны требования, предъявляемые к содержанию, организации текста, лексике, грамматике, орфографии и пунктуации.
      1. Introduction (state the problem)
      The Internet is an extremely useful tool that has become an important part of our lives in the last few years. It makes searching for information much easier and quicker than before when people had to rely on books as a research tool. But, there are those who points out that the Internet can make life more dificult too.

      2. Arguments “for”
      It is true that the Internet has given us the possibility of reading vast quantities of information on an unlimited number of topics. What is more, it allows us to communicate that information to anyone who has a computer, via email. For many people, it is their only source of written information.

      3. Arguments “against”
      However, the Internet has its drawbacks. The main one is that the information that it provides is not always accurate or up-to-date. Secondly, the amount of information is so great that it can make looking for something too complicated. In addition, it can be quite costly to log onto and use.

      4. Conclusion
      All in all, the Internet is a useful addition to our lives when it is used wisely, but it is important not to think of it as the only source of information and to use books as well. It is unique in the way it has united the world through communication of ideas and this has never happened before.
        А так же мы предлагаем вашему вниманию две «шпаргалки», по которым можно быстро повторить план сочинения-рассуждения и связующие слова, которые используются в этом виде письменного задания.

    When we write about the pros and cons of an issue, we consider a topic from opposing points of view, outlining the advantages and disadvantages.

    • In the first paragraph we introduce the topic. In articles and compositions, we may use any of the following techniques to make the beginning more interesting to the reader:

    • - a reference to an imaginary scene or situation
      - addressing the reader directly
      - a rhetorical question
      - a quotation

    • The main body usually consists of two paragraphs. One presents the points for the issue, along with our justifications or examples. The other presents the points against the issue with supporting sentences.


    • In the final paragraph we give our opinion and/or a balanced summary of the topic. To make the ending of the composition more effective, we can use one of the following techniques:

    • - state a personal opinion
      - give the reader something to consider
      - use a quotation or rhetorical question

    • Do not include opinion words (I believe, I think, etc) in the introduction or the main body of compositions, reports and articles.


    • Pros and cons can be found in articles, compositions, reports or letters. The style of writing is usually semi-formal or formal.

    In a discursive composition, ideas should be linked with appropriate linking words and phrases. Examples of these include:

    To list and add points:
    Firstly/In the first place/To start/begin with ...; Secondly/In addition/Furthermore/Moreover/Besides...; Thirdly/Finally/Last; Last but not least; etc

    To introduce or list advantages:
    The first/main/most important advantage of...;
    One/Another/An additional advantage of ...;
    One point of view in favour of...; It is often suggested/believed/argued that...;
    Some/Many people suggest/feel/argue that...; etc

    To introduce or list disadvantages:
    The main/most important disadvantage/drawback of...; One/Another/An additional disadvantage/negative effect of...; One point/argument against; etc

    To introduce examples/reasons/results:
    For example/instance; such as; like; in particular; therefore; for this reason; because; as; since; as a result; etc

    To show contrast:
    On the other hand; However; still; but; Nonetheless; Nevertheless; Although; Even though; Despite/ In spite of (the fact that); etc

    To introduce a conclusion:
    In conclusion; To conclude/sum up; All in all; Finally; Last; All things considered; Taking everything into account/ consideration; etc

    А теперь давайте поработаем с другим сочинением на заданную тему. Выполните два задания:

    1) Заполните пропуски соответствующими словами:

    • such as • In addition • Another negative effect
    • To begin with • On the one hand • As a result
    • On the other hand • All things considered • Finally

    Can you imagine life without computers? Whether in the office, school or at home, computers have become an indispensable part of our everyday existence. Yet, have the changes they brought about really been for the better?

    1) ....................................., the benefits of computers cannot be denied.
    2) ....................................., they save valuable time and space. Time-consuming tasks,
    3) ..................................... checking bank accounts, can now be done in a matter of minutes and large amounts of information are economically stored on tiny disks.
    4) ....................................., with immediate access to the Internet, they allow us to explore the world from the comfort of our homes.
    5) ....................................., we car keep up-to-date with global and current issues.
    6) .............................., computers provide entertainment, for instance in the form of amusing games.
    7) ....................................., there are also disadvantages with the computer age. Computer technology may progress rapidly, but machines still make mistakes. It is not uncommon for computers to suddenly crash, deleting whole files of essential information.
    8) ..................................... of computers is that people easily become dependent on them. How often do we youngsters spending all their free time in front of the computer, isolating themselves from other people their age?
    9) ....................................., it seems to me that computers are admirable tools that improve the quality of life, but only when used sensibly. No matter how advanced a machine is, it can never replace a human being.”

    2) Ответьте на вопросы:

    1 What are the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs? Underline them and suggest other appropriate ones.
    2 What are the supporting sentences?
    3 What technique is used to start/end the essay?

    Проверить правильность выполнения задания вы сможете в следующем номере SE.


    Следующее задание, которое мы предлагаем вам выполнить поможет в подготовке к устной части экзамена в задании «Диалог с целью обмена фактической информацией».
    Представьте, что вы выиграли четырёхнедельную поездку в Великобританию с целью изучения английского языка в одной из этих школ. Прочитайте информацию о школах и решите, в какую из них вы предпочли бы поехать.

    SEAVIEW STUDY CENTRE

    Study in the sun



    There’s fun as well as learning at the Seaview Study Centre, Cornwall. English lessons are for two hours every morning, Monday to Friday. The school offers three surfing lessons per week and beach
    volleyball matches are organised daily. The social programme includes a powerboat trip along the Cornish coast and a beach barbecue every Saturday evening.
    Students stay in shared caravans or family-sized tents at the Seaview Holiday Park.

    Cost: £850 for four weeks



    Northern Language School



    Learn English in Liverpool, home of the Beatles. There are twenty hours of lesson per week and a lively social programme, which includes free entry into the Beatles Museum and a free trip on the Magical Mystery Tour bus. Students are allowed to use the nearby swimming pool and sauna. Accommodation is in shared apartments.



    Заполнив таблицу, ответьте на следующие вопросы, чтобы убедиться в правильности своего выбора.

      1 How many hours of English do students at both schools have?
      2 What are the sports facilities at the Northern Language School?
      3 How much does an English course at Seaview Study Centre cost?
      4 What is included in the social programme at both centres?
    Name of school: Location: Hours per week: Price: Social programme: Sports facilities: Accomodation type:
    Seaview Study Centre
    Northern Language School





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