Перевод с английского языка на основе функционального подхода к грамматике (2)
Ольга Анатольевна Шишова
кандидат филологических наук, доцент
Мы продолжаем знакомить вас с возможностями перевода текстов на основе функционального подхода к грамматике. В прошлом выпуске мы познакомили вас со способами перевода многофункционального слова ONE. Сегодня представляем алгоритм перевода многофункциональных глаголов to be и to do.
1. He is at home now. – Он сейчас (находится) дома.
2. He was homesick. – Он тосковал по дому.
He is a good swimmer. – Он хороший пловец.
3. Helen is to meet Jane at the station. – Элен должна встретить Джейн на станции.
The conference was to be held in May. – Конференция должна была состояться в мае.
4. She is reading in her room. – Она (сейчас) читает в своей комнате.
We’ll be waiting for her. – Мы будем ждать ее.
We have been living here since 1950. – Мы живем здесь с 1950 года.
5. His name is known all over the world. – Его имя известно во всем мире.
He was interested in poetry. – Он интересовался поэзией.
Переведите следующие предложения.
1 John is a strong believer in fresh air.
2 The theatre is being built not far from our house.
3 He had been working for an hour and a half already.
4 My mother will be operated by a famous professor.
5 They were discussing a new film when we came in.
6 By five o’clock we will have been working for three hours.
7 It is known that there are sixty minutes in an hour.
8 What a small eater you are!
9 What have you been looking for all this time?
10 In ten minutes I was taken to hospital.
11 You are so old that you could be my grandfather.
12 We are to be married next week.
13 They are to go to the country.
14 I was to come to the examination at ten o’clock.
15 What exactly was Bennie Hyman being so mysterious about this morning?
16 There is one point I’m not clear about.
17 Tomorrow is being built today.
18 The book will have been finished by Friday.
19 Twenty years ago George was inclined to be fat.
20 Whether we can help you is a difficult question.
21 It is right that he should have been punished.
22 This medicine is to be taken three times a day.
23 You are to wait here until the manager arrives.
24 He is about to go.
25 There was no taxi to be found at that late hour.
2. Переведите текст, обращая внимание на различные функции глагола to be.
WHAT’S IN A NAME?
Many everyday objects are given their names for a reason. The biro (a ballpoint pen) was invented by George and Josef Biro, so it was named after them. The sandwich, on the other hand, was names after the 4th Earl of Sandwich in 1762. Despite the fact that the idea of eating slices of meat between slices of bread was not a new one, the Earl of Sandwich made it popular. He would ask to be served this dish at his card table so that he could play all day. Morse code (the use of long and short sounds to send messages along a wire) was invented by Samuel Morse in 1844 and bermuda shorts were so named because they first became popular in Bermuda. So, next time you use an everyday object, why not stop and think about where its name came from?
You might be surprised!
1. Дополнение чаще всего бывает выражено личным местоимением в объектном падеже (те, him, her, it, us, you, them) или существительным без предлога.
2. Подлежащее чаще всего бывает выражено личным местоимением (I, he, she, it, we, you, they) или существительным.
1. He always does his lessons in the evening. - Он всегда делает уроки вечером.
What were you doing at 7 o’clock? - Что вы делали в семь часов?
2. Where do you live? - Где вы живете?
I didn’t go there. - Я не ходил туда.
3. Which of them lives in Kiev? - Anna does. - Кто из них живет в Киеве? - Анна (живет).
He stayed there much longer than he usually does. - Он оставался там значительно дольше, чем остается обычно (чем он обычно это делает).
4. He does help them. - Он же (ведь) помогает им.
She did ask us about it. - Она действительно спрашивала об этом.
1. Глагол to do в качестве смыслового глагола может встречаться в любой видо-временной форме (см. упражнение 1 данного раздела).
2. Глагол to do в функциях вспомогательного глагола, заместителя смыслового глагола и усилительного глагола употребляется только в формах do, does, did.
Переведите следующие предложения.
1 She bought a picture but she didn’t show it to us.
2 You have done this exercise well.
3 Nina had to do this exercise.
4 The translation must be done without a dictionary.
5 He said he would come and he did come.
6 What are you doing there?
7 Now I see that she does know the subject well.
8 Who saw him yesderday? - I did.
9 How long have you been doing this work and when will you have finished it?
10 We do not know very much of this author. But we do know that all the three poems were written by him.
11 “Do you want to see our flat?” Alec asks me. “Certainly, I do,” I answer.
12 This work is still being done.
13 A war danger in the world does exist.
14 He stayed there much longer than he usually did.
15 When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
16 She said she couldn’t see me. She was too busy doing other things.
17 I like my future speciality very much and I shall do my best to be a good student.
18 Do inform them about it.
19 These old manuscripts are not so easy to read as our modern books, for the reason that there is no space between words. The later manuscripts, however, do sometimes have spaces between words just as we have.
20 Newton did make contribution to astronomy.
21 Do you think it’s right to punish people for things they haven’t done?
22 This work will have been done by that time.
23 A job is usually done badly when too many people do it.
24 Though the work is difficult, I’ll do it, and it will be done well.
25 I didn’t have any money, nor did George.
26 I have tea for breakfast and so does my wife.
27 The dog’s barking didn’t wake me up, the alarm clock did.
28 Do stay a little longer.
29 I hope he doesn’t go back on his promise.
30 Bob doesn’t like being asked questions about his job.
31 You don’t have to worry about it.
32 He doesn’t mind doing that.
В следующем номере газеты “School English” мы рассмотрим способы перевода некоторых неличных форм глаглола.